# Stopping Power of Matter for Ions

## Introduction to Graphs and Data

- The stopping power shown in the graphs is the
**electronic stopping power**. The stopping power due to collisions between projectile and an entire atom ("nuclear" stopping power) is small in most cases shown.
- The gif-picture shows the measured stopping power data for each ion and target from many different sources. Every symbol corresponds to a data point; the different letters correspond to different publications.The various curves correspond to different fitted semi-empirical curves from the literature. Click here to see an example of a picture.
- The origin-pictures are the sources for the gif-pictures. By using the program Microcal Origin to view one of these files, not only do you get a better view of the graph, but in addition you may change the scales, and also view the numerical data (measured points and curves) themselves.
- Graphs are generally shown where at least two or three data files are available for the particular ion and target. You are welcome to look at the plots, to use the data collection and to use program MSTAR. Although the collection is large, it is probably not complete.
- There are separate tables and graphs for hydrogen ions, helium ions and heavier ions if you look at the links on the left-hand menu bar. There you can find the whole updated compilation and figures for each ion-target stopping power.
- For ions heavier than helium, you can also see "universal" plots, where all the data for the particular ion are shown on one graph (see introduction to heavier ions).
- The
**data reference codes** are explained in the list of all data references and the **curve designations** in the list of stopping power tables and programs.
- To download all the files of
**experimental data** (including those not yet shown in the graphs), click here.
- There is a separate site on "oscillations": graphs showing the stopping power as a function of the atomic number of ion or target. Since 2009, tables of
**Optical Oscillator Strengths** have also been added for several elements.
- There is a separate site summarizing the statistical analyses (the work by H. Paul and A. Schinner in 2001, 2003 and 2005). To see the list of
**data rejected** in these analyses, see statistical analyses. To see a list of the compounds treated in H. Paul's statistical analyses, click here.