# Stopping Power of Matter for Ions

## Introduction to Graphs and Data

- The stopping power shown in the graphs is the
**electronic stopping power**. The
"nuclear" stopping power is small in most cases shown. Only stable ions are considered.
- The gif-picture shows the measured stopping power data for each ion and target from many different sources. Every symbol corresponds to a data point; the different letters correspond to different publications.
- The origin-pictures are the sources for the gif-pictures. By using the program Microcal Origin to view one of these files, not only do you get a better view of the graph, but in addition you may change the scales, and also view the numerical data (measured points and curves) themselves.
- Graphs are generally shown where at least two or three data files are available for the particular ion and target.
Although the collection is large, it is probably not complete.
- There are separate tables and graphs for hydrogen ions, helium ions and heavier ions if you look at the links on the left-hand menu bar. There you can find the whole updated compilation and figures for each ion-target stopping power.
- For ions heavier than helium, there are "universal" plots, where all the data for the particular ion are shown on one graph.
These plots are updated until Sept. 2015.
- The
**data reference codes** are explained in the list of all data references and the **curve designations** in the list of stopping power tables and programs.
- To download all the files of
**experimental data ** (including those not yet shown in the graphs)
until Sept. 2015, click here.
- There is a separate site on "oscillations": graphs showing the stopping power as a function of the atomic number of ion or target. Since 2009
to 2015, tables of
**Optical Oscillator Strengths** have also been added for several elements.
- There is a separate site summarizing the statistical analyses (the work by H. Paul and A. Schinner in 2001, 2003 and 2005). To see the list of
**data rejected** in these analyses, see statistical analyses. To see a list of the compounds treated in H. Paul's statistical analyses, click here.